One consistent measure of a compliance culture is executive responsibility. In the case of Enron's CEO, Jeffrey Skilling, there was little evidence of that. True, he was obligated to comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. But remarkably, his January 1, 1996 Employment Agreement might have allowed him to be convicted under the FCPA and still keep his job. How? By his own declaration that he had no personal knowledge of or involvement in the crime -- the same defense he later bet on and lost at his federal trial for conspiracy, securities fraud, wire fraud and insider trading.
Fellow executives Rebecca Mark, Kenneth Rice and Joseph Sutton lacked Mr. Skilling's sui generis right to declare themselves innocent. Upon an FCPA offense, however, their employment agreements, like his, allowed the board to decide that if they'd acted in good faith after all, they could remain employed by Enron (never mind the mens rea element of a federal criminal conviction under the FCPA).
Mr. Skilling's Employment Agreement said in part:
Employee shall at all times comply with United States laws applicable to Employee's actions on behalf of Employer, including specifically, without limitation, the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, generally codified in 15 USC 78 (FCPA), as the FCPA may hereafter be amended, and/or its successor statutes. If Employee pleads guilty to or nolo contendere or admits civil or criminal liability under the FCPA, or if a court finds that Employee has personal civil or criminal liability under the FCPA, or if a court finds that Employee personally committed an action resulting in any Enron entity having civil or criminal liability or responsibility under the FCPA with knowledge of the activities giving rise to such liability or knowledge of facts from which Employee should have reasonably inferred the activities giving rise to liability had occurred or were likely to occur, such action or finding shall constitute "cause" for termination under this Agreement unless (i) such action or finding was based on the activities of others and Employee had no personal involvement or knowledge of such activities, or (ii) Employer's Board of Directors or Enron's management committee (or, if there is no Enron management committee, the highest applicable level of Enron management) determines that the actions found to be in violation of the FCPA were taken in good faith and in compliance with all applicable policies of Employer and Enron.
View Jeffrey Skilling's Employment Agreement Here.